In 1954, the Geneva Conference provided the division of Vietnam in two separate states: the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam, communist partisan state) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam, democratic state). Sure enough, a civil war ensued, which escalated to an international conflict once the United States signed a military and economic treaty with South Vietnam in 1961. In the following years, American troops have systematically deployed thousands of troops to South Vietnam. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution was passed by the US Senate in 1964, allowing military intervention over North Vietnam. Starting with 1965, the United States began warfare against Communist Vietnam, investing a huge number of troops (almost 550.000 by 1969) and armaments. Despite these efforts, North Vietnam, backed up by Russia and the paramilitary organization Viet Cong in South Vietnam rejected the offensives causing devastating losses to the American army. Violent protests and great criticism from all over the world, determined the Nixon Administration to start preparations for US troops withdrawal following the signing of the 1973 peace agreement in Paris.
The immediate answer to the tragic events of September 11th 2001 in New York was the Enduring FreedomOperation started by USA on October 7th, along with the United Kingdom. The mission of the operation was the crushing of the Al-Qaeda terrorist organization, capturing its leader, Osama Bin-Laden, declared guilty by the US of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The Taliban regime in Afghanistan, believed by US intelligence to host the Al-Qaeda on its territory, was overthrown in a matter of weeks, with its leaders fleeing to secluded mountainside locations and to Pakistan. However, the Talibans reorganized and proceeded to sustained guerilla and suicide bomb attacks all over the American won territories. Despite NATO involvement, the war went on for years, causing numerous casualties, especially civilians. In 2012, an US troops withdrawal plan was implemented, scheduled to be concluded by 2014.
The Iraq war began in March 20th2003,a few months after the George W. Bush Administration publicly stated that US intelligence found evidence of weapons of mass destruction being developed by Iraq. Although UN inspectors searching for such weapons concluded that the nuclear development program in Iraq was closed in 1991 and there was no actual proof that Saddam Hussein’s regime would be developing such armaments, the US began a one month military invasion in Iraq, without declaring war. Although the invasion was successful, insurgent resistance proved to be fierce and kept on fighting against the US army for the next 8 years, totaling over 100.000 civilian deaths. On December 18th 2011, the last American troops were withdrawn from Iraq.